Wildlife Intrusion Detection & Prevention

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Wildlife Intrusion Detection & Prevention in Farmlands using AI-Based Solution

AiProff.ai's AI-Driven Initiative in Agricultural Security and Reforms

India is an agriculture-driven country. More than half of the Indian workforce is being employed directly by the primary sector. Moreover, India ranks second worldwide in terms of farm outputs, where the agriculture sector contributes nearly 20.2% to the country’s GDP.

However, while there is a strong focus on improving crop yield, production and productivity in general, India's agricultural sector grapples with multifaceted challenges. One of them is wildlife intrusion, which leads to substantial crop damage every year. Wild animals – such as elephants, wild boars, cows, monkeys and deer – tend to migrate to nearby agricultural fields in search of food, causing huge damage to the crops; not only by eating but also by trampling the crops by foot. In some states like Coastal Odisha, the extent of crop damage due to wildlife has been recorded to 50-60%, and sometimes even 100%.

Predominantly, regions like Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Haryana bear witness to these challenges, with farmers facing severe economic and emotional repercussions.

The Agricultural Challenge: A Glimpse of Reality

Farmers nationwide have consistently reported extensive crop damage caused due to wildlife. This, as stated earlier, results not only in financial losses amounting to crores (10s of millions) over the years but also increases emotional tolls on the farmers. Understanding such recurrent incidents, the Indian government annually announces compensations to these farmers while also devising strategies to counteract the market shortages arising from these unforeseen agricultural disruptions.

Key statistics further underscore the gravity of the challenge at hand:

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  • 1.65 Cr (~200,000 USD– Compensation in 2022, in Coimbatore Region.
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  • 32,500 / hectare – Government declared compensation for 50% damage to crops.
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  • 50000+ – Incidents of crop damage by wildlife animals annually in India.

In recent years, the problem of crop damage caused by wildlife has become increasingly severe. In Uttar Pradesh, where a significant portion of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood, it is a “common sight” to see wild animals destroying crops. This issue is particularly prevalent in the districts of Siddharthnagar, Gorakhpur, and Sultanpur.

Moreover, the issue of wildlife intrusion is not limited to agriculture. According to a report by Pune Forest Division , human-wildlife conflicts in Pune are steadily increasing. Nearly 341 incidents of losses were reported between April 2022 and March 2023.Pune is a state in India that is one of the leading producers of rice, which is the staple food in the region.

As a result of the increasing severity of crop damage caused by wildlife, the government has announced compensation and measures to absorb the shortage created in the market due to these unexpected events. The Central government has even allowed States to notify losses to crops due to wild animal attacks , making this as an add-on cover to the existing PM crop insurance scheme. The scheme aims to provide financial protection to farmers against crop loss due to natural disasters, pests, and diseases.

Introduction to AiProff.ai's Pilot Initiative

At Aiproff.ai, we strongly believe that Technology augmented with Artificial Intelligence can be a way to address this pressing issue.

Under the leadership of Senior Data Scientist Nitin Saraswat , AiProff.ai is pioneering a pilot AI-driven initiative to tackle the challenge of wildlife intrusion in agriculture. This initiative aims to assess the viability, efficacy, and scalability of leveraging AI technologies to address agricultural disruptions.

We propose an innovative AI-based solution designed not only to deter wildlife but also to preserve ecological balance, devoid of any harmful interventions or adverse outcomes.

Our proposed solution targets a 1-hectare agricultural plot and operates seamlessly both during daylight and nighttime. Prioritising economic viability and ecological sustainability, our pilot solution is designed for scalable implementation across diverse geographical regions.

Furthermore, it lays the foundation for integrating various AI-based image and video analytics applications tailored for agricultural landscapes.

Building upon this foundation, it becomes crucial to examine the existing solutions, assess the failures of these solutions, and refine our approach based on that.

Let's delve deeper into addressing the limitations of current methodologies and crafting a robust pilot solution tailored for sustainable agricultural advancement.

Addressing Limitations of Current Solutions & Crafting a Pilot Solution

The persistent issue of wildlife intrusion in agricultural regions over the years has led to the development of various solutions. Each solution has its own set of challenges and limitations.

In India, the following are the three primary methodologies that are currently being employed – clutch wires with a 10V battery, barbed wire installations, and manual surveillance by farmers.

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Clutch Wire with 10V Battery: This approach involves installing wires that deliver electric shocks to animals upon contact. While effective to an extent, it poses significant risks, including potential harm to humans. Challenges associated with this method include the frequent need for reinstallation, escalating costs, and safety concerns, particularly for children and smaller animals.

Barbed Wire Installations: Utilising barbed wires as a restraint has its drawbacks, notably the recurring labour and material costs associated with regular installations and removals. Given the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, the constant uprooting of these barriers proves both time-consuming and labour-intensive, posing additional challenges to farmers.

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Barbed Wire Installations: Utilising barbed wires as a restraint has its drawbacks, notably the recurring labour and material costs associated with regular installations and removals. Given the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, the constant uprooting of these barriers proves both time-consuming and labour-intensive, posing additional challenges to farmers.

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Manual Farmer Surveillance: Perhaps the most inefficient and perilous of all solutions, this method necessitates farmers to physically monitor their fields, rendering them susceptible to wildlife encounters, adverse weather conditions, and other hazards. This not only jeopardises the safety of farmers but also lacks scalability, as it demands continuous human intervention without offering a sustainable, long-term solution.

Upon evaluating the prevailing solutions, a common thread of challenges emerges: the recurring need for manual intervention, escalating costs, safety concerns, and limited scalability.

Whether it's the frequent reinstallation of clutch wires, the labour-intensive nature of barbed wire setups, or the inherent risks associated with manual farmer surveillance, these methods collectively underscore the need for a more innovative and sustainable approach.

It becomes evident that there is a pressing need for a solution that not only addresses these challenges but also leverages advanced technologies to redefine agricultural security.

That’s where AiProff comes into the picture. Let’s delve into the objectives and methodological framework of our pioneering AI-driven initiative.

Objectives & Methodological Overview

At the heart of our endeavour lies a steadfast commitment to strengthen the financial security of Indian farmers through innovative technological interventions.

To realise this goal, we have laid out three pivotal objectives that encapsulate the essence of our solution:

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  • Inbound and Outbound Detection of Wild Animals: Central to our approach is the nuanced detection of wild animals, achieved through AI model training. By analysing animal movements, we aim to detect whether they are approaching the farmland or merely lingering on its periphery, thereby enabling timely interventions.
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  • Animal Detector Alarm System: Our system is engineered to activate alarms when an animal ventures within a critical threshold—specifically when it is approximately two feet from the farmland perimeter. Leveraging sophisticated audio-visual parameters, we aspire to create a restraint that maximises the likelihood of driving the animal away from the cultivated area.
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  • Monitoring & Feedback: Beyond mere detection, our solution incorporates advanced AI/ML capabilities to monitor animal movements post-alarm activation. This iterative approach enables us to deploy additional alarms strategically, ensuring that the animal's exit from the farmland is both expedient and definitive.

As we navigate through the subsequent phases of development and implementation, these objectives will serve as the cornerstone of our efforts.

Solution Design: Core Concept, Components and Features

In crafting this robust solution, our approach prioritises a blend of technological prowess and eco-system responsibility.

Through a combination of proprietary algorithms, specialised hardware configurations, and user-centric interfaces, we aim to deliver an unparalleled agricultural security solution that is both effective and sustainable.

Phase 1: Initial Deployment and Monitoring

The first stage focuses on the seamless deployment and vigilant monitoring of our specialised equipment.

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  • Tailored Camera Configuration: In the pilot phase, specialised cameras with unique configurations are deployed across targeted farmland areas, ensuring comprehensive coverage without compromising operational efficiency.
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  • Intelligent Threat Detection: Leveraging proprietary algorithms, the system identifies and captures relevant video clips featuring potential wildlife threats and intrusion.
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  • Secure Mobile Application Interface: A dedicated mobile application provides authorised users (farmers) with secure access to real-time video feeds and actionable insights. The clips attained undergo immediate processing to enable rapid response protocols while minimising data transmission overhead.

Phase 2: Continuous Improvement and Adaptation

The next stage deals with iterative refinement and adaptive enhancement, ensuring sustained effectiveness and relevance.

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  • Localised AI Enhancement: The AI algorithms are continuously refined using EDGE computing, enhancing their ability to discern genuine threats from false positives, thereby ensuring reliable performance in dynamic environments.
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  • Adaptive Alert Mechanisms: Based on ongoing assessments and feedback, the alert parameters are dynamically adjusted to optimise effectiveness while mitigating potential deterrent habituation in targeted wildlife populations.

Implementation Overview

Navigating the complexities of solution deployment, the implementation phase is characterised by strategic planning, meticulous execution, and continuous monitoring.

  1. Customised Solution Development: The initial phase focuses on designing a bespoke solution tailored to the unique challenges and requirements of the agricultural landscape, ensuring a distinct competitive advantage.
  2. Strategic Deployment: Following comprehensive testing and validation, the solution is strategically deployed across select farmland areas, leveraging proprietary installation methodologies to maximise efficacy and minimise detection vulnerabilities.
  3. Performance Monitoring and Iterative Refinement: Post-deployment, the system undergoes rigorous performance evaluations, with insights gleaned used to inform iterative refinements and enhancements, safeguarding our technological edge in the market.

As we navigate this multifaceted landscape of innovation and implementation, our focus extends beyond mere deployment to the critical phase of evaluation. The effectiveness of our solution hinges on its tangible impact and operational efficiency, which we meticulously measure against predefined metrics.

Let’s now delve into the comprehensive metrics and methodologies employed to gauge the success of our pilot initiative, offering insights into its real-world performance and the actionable intelligence derived for future enhancements.

Evaluation Metrics: Assessing the Success

The effectiveness of our solution will be rigorously evaluated against a set of predefined success criteria, designed to measure its performance and impact.

Additionally, we have identified key advantages inherent to our technical solution that further underscore its viability and value proposition.

The success will be evaluated based on the following metrics:

  1. Precision in Threat Detection: A primary metric will be the reduction of false positives, ensuring accurate identification of wild animals and their trajectories.
  2. Efficiency in Animal Deterrence: The solution's efficacy will also be measured by its ability to prompt wild animals to vacate the protected area upon alarm activation.
  3. Economic Viability: A pivotal aspect of our evaluation will be the cost-effectiveness of maintaining the solution on a monthly basis, ensuring sustainable deployment without undue financial burden.

Advantages of Current Technical Solution

  1. Operational Continuity: Our solution is designed to integrate seamlessly with existing farmland operations, minimising disruptions and ensuring a smooth implementation.
  2. Scalability:Once deployed, the system architecture facilitates easy replication across diverse agricultural landscapes, offering scalability without compromising efficiency.
  3. Sustainability:Leveraging solar power, our solution aligns with eco-friendly practices, offering a sustainable alternative to traditional energy sources.
  4. Cost Efficiency at Scale:As the solution is scaled across larger areas or similar use cases, it demonstrates a compelling cost advantage, further enhancing its appeal.
  5. Real-Time Monitoring and Control:The inclusion of a mobile application enables farmers to monitor the system in real-time, providing them with actionable insights and control over the security parameters.
  6. Eco-Compatible Design:In alignment with environmental considerations, our solution is designed to operate in harmony with existing ecosystems, reflecting our commitment to responsible innovation.

Insights & Future Prospects

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As we reflect on the journey thus far, several insights emerge that not only validate the efficacy of our current solution but also illuminate potential avenues for future innovation and expansion.

Key Insights:

Future Prospects:

Conclusion

While our current solution marks a significant step forward in addressing agricultural security challenges, the path ahead is rich with opportunities to leverage emerging technologies and collaborative approaches.

AiProff.ai is confident that this initiative will catalyse a transformative shift in Indian agriculture through the synergy of Artificial Intelligence and technological innovation.

By staying agile, innovative, and committed to our mission, we are well-positioned to shape a more resilient and sustainable future for agriculture, where technology and ecology coexist harmoniously.

Interested in knowing more about AiProff’s reliable and robust solutions? Click here to have a walkthrough of the system

AiProff.ai excel at creating state-of-the-art AI/ML based solutions for Government, SMB, Large Enterprises and Academic Institutions. Owing to our cost efficient and optimal approach we are able to lower the entry barrier for organisations of all sizes for leveraging cutting edge AI/ML solutions and expedite Time to Market.

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  1. As per the Indian economic survey 2020 -21: https://www.financialexpress.com/budget/india-economic-survey-2018-for-farmers-agriculture-gdp-msp/1034266/
  2. Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Annual Report 2022-23 : Pg 124 https://msme.gov.in/sites/default/files/MSMEANNUALREPORT2022-23ENGLISH.pdf
  3. https://www.business-standard.com/india-news/compensation-for-crop-damage-to-farmers-goes-up-in-madhya-pradesh-123042701024_1.html
  4. https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas

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